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Friday, July 31, 2015

Cleveland, Grover (1893-97)

Notes from a compilation of the messages and papers of the presidents 1789-1897, 10 vols., by James D. Richardson (U.S. Representative from Tennessee), ed., (Washington, D.C.: U.S. Government Printing Office, published by AUTHORITY OF congress, 1897, 1899; Washington, D.C.: Bureau of National Literature and Art, 1789-1902, 11 vols., 1907, 1910).

On December 3, 1894, in his Second Annual Address,
President Grover Cleveland stated:

In my last annual message I adverted to the claim on the part of Turkey of the right to expel as persons undesirable and dangerous Armenians naturalized in the United States and returning to Turkish jurisdiction. Numerous questions in this relation have arisen. While this Government acquiesces in the asserted right of expulsion, it will not consent that Armenians may be imprisoned or otherwise punished for no other reason than having acquired without imperial consent American citizenship. Three of the assailants of Miss Melton, an American teacher in Mosul, have been convicted by the Ottoman courts, and I am advised that an appeal against the acquittal of the remaining five has been taken by the Turkish prosecuting officer. (Vol. IX, p. 530).

On December 11, 1894, from his Executive Mansion,
President Grover Cleveland wrote to the Senate:

I have received a copy of the following resolution of the Senate, passed the 3rd instant: Resolved, that the President be requested, if in his judgment it be not incompatible with the public interest, to communicate to the Senate any information he may have received in regard to alleged cruelties committees upon Armenians in Turkey, and especially whether any such cruelties have been committed upon citizens who have declared their intention to become naturalized in this country or upon persons because of their being Christians. And further, to inform the Senate whether any expostulations have been addressed by this Government to the Government of Turkey in regard to such matters or any proposals made by or to this Government to act in concert with other Christian powers regarding the same. (Vol. IX, p. 557).

On Monday, December 2, 1895, in his Seventh Annual Message, President Grover Cleveland wrote to Congress:

Occurrences in Turkey have continued to excite concern. The reported massacres of Christians in Armenia and the development there and in other districts of a spirit of fanatic hostility to Christian influences naturally excited apprehension for the safety of the devoted men and women who, as dependants of the foreign missionary societies in the United States, reside in Turkey under the guaranty of law and usage and in the legitimate performance of their educational and religious mission. No efforts have been spared in their behalf, and their protection in person and property has been earnestly and vigorously enforced by every means within our power… Others have been carried out, and our latest intelligence gives assurance of the present personal safety of our citizens and missionaries. Though thus far no lives of American citizens have been sacrificed, there can be no doubt that serious loss and destruction of mission property have resulted from riotous conflicts and outrageous attacks. By treaty several of the most powerful European powers have secured a right and have assumes a duty not only on behalf of their own citizens and in furtherance of their own interest, but as agents of the Christian world. Their right to enforce such conduct of Turkish governance as will refrain fanatical brutality, and if this fails that duty is to so interfere as to insure against such dreadful occurrences in Turkey as have lately shocked civilizations. (Vol. IX, pp. 635, 637-638).

On December 19, 1895,
in a message from President Grover Cleveland to the Senate:

In response to the resolution of the Senate of the 4th instant, requesting the President, “if in his judgment not incompatible with the public interest, to communicate to the Senate all information which has been received by him or by the Senate Department in regard to injuries inflicted upon the persons or property of American citizens in Turkey and in regard to the condition of affairs there in reference or the oppression or cruelties practiced upon the Armenian subjects of the Turkish Government; also to inform the Senate whether all the American consuls in the Turkish Empire are at their posts of duty, and, if not, to state any circumstances which have interfered with the performance of the duties of such consuls” I transmit herewith a report from the Secretary of State. (Vol. IX, pp. 658-659).

On December 30, 1895, President Grover Cleveland wrote to Senate:

In response to the resolution of the Senate of the 21st instant, relative to the refusal of the Turkish Government to grant exequaturs to the vice-consuls of the United States at Erzerum and Harpoort, I transmit herewith a report from the Secretary of State. (Vol. IX, p. 660).

On January 23, 1896, President Grover Cleveland wrote to Senate:

I transmit herewith a report from the Secretary of State, in answer to a resolution of the Senate of the 16th instant, requesting information in regard to the treatment of naturalized citizens of the United States of Armenian origin, and their families, by the Turkish Government. (Vol. IX, p. 663).

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